Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic sea ,in the region of Dalmatia. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean, a capital of Dubrovnik –Neretva County, and the greatest cultural center of Croatia. In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.Dubrovnik is als known as "Croatian Athens", "Pearl of the Adriatic" or "Thesaurum mundi".
The prosperity of the city of Dubrovnik was historically based onmaritime trade. As the capital of the Republic of Ragusa, a maritime republic, the city achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries. Dubrovnik became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy.
Famous Dubrovnic Republic is also well known as St.Blasius Republic. St. Blasius was a physician and according to the Acta Sanctorum, he was martyred by being beaten, attacked with iron cording combs, and beheaded. In the Latin Church his feast falls on 3 February. He became patron and protector of the City in 972 and since than, Dubrovnik has more than thousand years long tradition of worship and public celebration during one week, starting on February 2nd.
Historical lore indicates that Dubrovnik was founded in the 7th century on a rocky island named Laus, which is said to have provided shelter for refugees from the nearby city of Epidaurum but new archelological findings indicates older urban history. Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a free state. The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice and other Italian maritime republics.The Republic of Ragusa received its own Statutes as early as 1272, statutes which, among other things, codified Roman practice and local customs.
Dubrovnik, through centuries remained one of the strongest economic and cultural Mediterranean center, a city-state with almost thousand years of autonomy and freedom, a city monument with museums, art galleries, treasuries, churches, palaces famous by his poets and writers, scientists, musicians, painters, sailors and diplomats.
In 1806, the Republic was surrendered by forces of the Empire of France.The French army, led by Napoleon, entered Dubrovnik in May 1806. Final end of the Dubrovnik Republic was in January 1808. Dubrovnik later became part of Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, than former Yugoslavia, and since 1991. Republic of Croatia.
Since centuries Dubrovnik has great tradition in higher eduction.Diocesan Classical Gymnasium "Ruđer Bošković" is a classical gymnasium and one of the city's oldest educational institutions with roots dating back to a seminary founded by the Jesuits in 17th century. It is affiliated with and operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dubrovnik. It is named after former student and famous european scientist Ruđer Bošković. The Collegium Ragusinum was the first such institution in the city of Dubrovnik. It had a strong tradition in the maritime sciences and is the predecessor of the present-day University of Dubrovnik.
In the 20th and beginningof 21st century Dubrovnik remained important Croatian cultural, educational, touristic and water sports center.
Dubrovnik is one of the most popular Mediterranean touristic site
HISTORY OF DUBROVNIK MEDICINE
The world first quarantine
The word "quarantine" originates from the Venetian dialect form of the Italian quaranta giorni, meaning 'forty days'. This is due to the 40 day isolation of ships and people before entering the city of Dubrovnik. This was practised as a measure of disease prevention related to the Black Death.
Between 1348 and 1359 the Black Death wiped out an estimated 30% of Europe's population, and a significant percentage of Asia's population. The original document from 1377, which is kept in the Archives of Dubrovnik, states that before entering the city, newcomers had to spend 30 days (a trentine) in a restricted place (originally nearby islands) waiting to see whether the symptoms of Black Death would develop. Later, isolation was prolonged to 40 days and was called quarantine.
So, Dubrovnik „quarantine“ was first to be founded in the world.
The Franciscan Monastery complex in Dubrovnik includes the third oldest pharmacy in Europe, and oldest which has been active uninterruptedly since 1317. Judging only from the viewpoint of continuity, this is perhaps the oldest pharmacy on the Old Continent. The parts of pharmacy inventory, mainly from the 17th and 18th centuries, are exhibited at the Franciscan Monastery Museum, the renaissance hall one enters from the cloister.
The history of Dubrovnik hospital first began in the 14th century, when a Poorhouse founded in 1347. was set up to become a real hospital Domus Christi on March 17th 1540.Since 1420. hospital had its own pharmacy.
Since 13th century Dubrovnik has official public physicians. On November 19th 1615. Council of Dubrovnik Republic titled the first „prothomedicus“ (primarius). First among others was Ivan Antun Sorna.
On October 27th 1783. Council of Dubrovnik Republic made a dicision that „all public physicians and surgeons are obligated to have a meeting in the house of Prothomedicus at the very last day in month, to discuss medical cases from last month. This was a foundation of first official Scientific (professional) Medical Council.
On April 1847. in Domus Christi hospital, the first operation in general (eter) anaethesia was performed, only few months after first one in the world.
Domus Christi was official public hospital during almost 350 years and lasted until 1888 when a new hospital was built in location Šiškovo, out of City walls.
Present-day Dubrovnik General Hospital is a modern institution, well equpied with facilities and skilled professionals. It is also a teaching hospital of the University of Dubrovnik.
Famous Dubrovnik physicians
In 13th century first public physicians were Ivan from Treviso and Vilim from Ascoli.
First surgeon was magister Donatus in 1278.
On November 17th 1312. magister Mitrač was first professional medical court witness.
In 1403. Antonio from Ancona was first ship physician/surgeon.
Magister Samuel was first ophtalmologic surgeon in 1414.
Amatus Lusitanus, famous medieval european physician, was officially engaged by Dubrovnik Government from 1555. till 1558.He discovered the circulation of the blood and through dissections of the Azygos vein, he was the first to observe and speculate about the venous valve found there. He was the most important medieval medical publisher.
Gjuro Baglivi (September 8, 1668 in Dubrovnik – June 15, 1707 in Rome) was assistant to Marcello Malpighi first in Bologna and then in Rome (1691-1694). He was appointed physician to Popes Innocent XII and Clement XI, Teacher of Surgery and Anatomy at La Sapienza and Rome University in 1696 and Professor of Theoretical Medicine in 1700. He was elected asFellow of Royal Society in July 1698.
Dr. Luko Stulli (Dubrovnik 1772- Dubrovnik 1828) -was pioneer in preventive medicine.
Mr. Antun Drobac (Dubrovnik 1810 – 1882) – was famous pharmacyst heriting great tradition of Dubrovnik pharmacy. Dubrovnik Natural Science Museum was founded on the private natural science collection of the this apothecary and ship-owner .
Dr. Ivan August Kaznačić (Dubrovnik 1817 – Dubrovnik 1883) – decent Dubrovnik physician, menager of the Hospital Domus Chisti from 1663 till his death 1883. He was also a poet and professor of Croatain language in Dubrovnik Gymnasium.
Dr. Roko Mišetić (Zadar 1845 – Dub rovnik 1908) was a student of prof. Theodor Billroth in Vienna and his friend durng many years. He was a first manager of new Dubrovnik Hospital in 1888. and leader of intelectual and polithical life in Dubrovnik at the transition of centuries.
Dr. Filip Smolčić (Brač 1872 - Dubrovnik 1954) – manager of the Dubrovnik hospital from 1908 till 1928. He was the founder of the Department of Surgery in 1922.
The climate in Dubrovnik is a Mediterranean. In the beginning of May is pretty warm to swim and bask on the sun. Air temperature ranges from 25 up to 30 C, and see temperature ranges from 20 to 22 C.
HOW TO REACH DUBROVNIK
Arriving to Dubrovnik by car is relatively easy. Highway road from all different part of Europe and Croatia is close to Dubrovnik. Listed below are distances to some nearby cities:
Zagreb (Croatia) - 526 km
Rijeka (Croatia) - 506 km
Split(Croatia) - 193 km
Vienna (Austria) - 671 km
Belgrade (Serbia) – 407 km
There are also inner and international bus lines.
The easiest way to reach Dubrovnik is by air. Dubrovnik has an modern international airport which is every day directly or indirectly connected with mostly all European metropolis and capitol cities.
You may also find it convenient to use the neighbouring airport:
Split (Croatia) : Split – Dubrovnik (around 200 km)
Tivat (Montenegro): Tivat – Dubrovnik (around 80 km)
Dubrovnik is also connected with official car ferry lines with Rijeka and Split as well as Italian Adriatic coast.
For citizens of many but not all countries, a valid passport (or personal identity card for residents of EU) is sufficient to enter Croatia. Participants are advised to check visa requirements at the nearest Croatian embassy or consulate. Information on visas and addresses of Croatian embassies is available on the web site of the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs at www.crovisa.mvep.hr . Participants who need a visa to enter Croatia have to request a Letter of Guarantee which will be prepared by the Organising Committee. The visa cannot be obtained without a Letter of Guarantee which is intended to facilitate participant’s visa arrangements only, and does not imply the provision of any financial or other support.
In case you will apply for a visa at any Croatian embassy please fill out the form completely in order to arrange a Letter of Guarantee and fax it or send it attached in an email to the address to the technical organiser, Congress service: Gulliver Travel Agency, at least one month before the arrival.
Letter of guarantee - to be announced
The organiser is authorised to demand payment of registration fee before the visa procedure starts. Please note that all costs are to be covered by the participant (verification tax and DHL post costs if needed).
The Croatian legal tender is Croatian kuna. Foreign currency may be exchanged at banks, exchange offices, travel agencies, hotels, airports, harbour and bus stations. There is a bank in the immediate vicinity of the Congress Hotel.
AUTOMATIC CASH DISPENSERS
Automatic cash dispensers accepting Visa, Eurocard/Mastercard, American Express credit cards and Maestro Cirrus are situated at all banks in Dubrovnik and also there are several more in the Valamar Hotels complex Babin kuk.
All major credit cards, such as American Express, Visa, Eurocard/Mastercard, Diners, are widely accepted in hotels, restaurants, and shops.
Electricity in croatia is 220v, 50hz. continental europe (schuko) plugs are used.
Tap water is safe to drink in Dubrovnik and Croatia.
European summer time, one hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).