ABOUT  DUBROVNIK

Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic sea ,in the region of Dalmatia. It is one of the most prominent tourist  destinations in the Mediterranean, a capital  of Dubrovnik –Neretva County, and the greatest cultural center of Croatia.  In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO  list of World Heritage Sites.Dubrovnik is als known as "Croatian Athens", "Pearl of the Adriatic" or "Thesaurum mundi".

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Dubrovnik before Greath earthquake in 1667.

 

The prosperity of the city of Dubrovnik was historically based onmaritime trade. As the capital of the Republic of  Ragusa,  a maritime  republic, the city achieved a high level of development, particularly during the 15th and 16th centuries. Dubrovnik became notable for its wealth and skilled diplomacy.

 

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Rector's Palace
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Official Coat of arms
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Sponza palace – official State customs

 

Famous Dubrovnic Republic is also well known as St.Blasius Republic. St. Blasius was a physician and according to the Acta Sanctorum, he was martyred by being beaten, attacked with iron cording combs, and beheaded. In the Latin Church his feast falls on 3 February. He became patron and protector of the City in 972 and since than, Dubrovnik has more than thousand years long tradition of worship and public celebration during one week, starting on February 2nd.

 

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Official flag of Dubrovnik Republic
Protector’s church on the main square

 

St. Basius traditional celebration – February 3rd
St. Basius traditional celebration – February 3rd

 

Historical lore indicates that Dubrovnik was founded in the 7th century on a rocky island named Laus, which is said to have provided shelter for refugees from the nearby city of Epidaurum but new archelological findings indicates older urban history. Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a free state. The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice and other Italian maritime republics.The Republic of Ragusa received its own Statutes as early as 1272, statutes which, among other things, codified Roman practice and local customs.

 


St.Lawrence fortress

Fortess of Bokar

 


Revelin fortress

St. Ivan fortress

 


Fortress of Minčeta

Dubrovnik City Walls

 


Main (western) entrance to the Old City

Eastern entrance to the Old City

 

Dubrovnik, through centuries remained one of the strongest economic and cultural Mediterranean center, a city-state with almost thousand years of autonomy and freedom, a city monument with museums, art galleries, treasuries, churches, palaces famous by his poets and writers, scientists, musicians, painters, sailors and diplomats.

 

Marin Držić
writer
(Dubrovnik 1508–Venice 1567)
Ivan Gundulić
poet
(Dubrovnik 1589-1638)
Luka Sorkočević
composer
(Dubrovnik 1734 – 1789)

 


Miho Pracat
famous maritime captain
(Dubrovnik 1522-1607)

Josip Ruđer Bošković
famous scientist and physicist
(Dubrovnik 1711 – Milano 1787)

Marin Getaldić
physicist and mathematician
(Dubrovnik 1568 – 1626)

 


Nikola Bunić
diplomat
(Dubrovnik 1635 – Bulgaria 1678)

Vlaho Bukovac
painter
(Dubrovnik 1855 - Prague 1922)

Ivo Vojnović
writer and poet
(Dubrovnik 1859 - Beograd 1929)

 

In 1806, the Republic was surrendered by forces of the Empire of France.The French army, led by Napoleon, entered Dubrovnik in May 1806. Final end of the Dubrovnik Republic was in January 1808. Dubrovnik later became part of Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, than former Yugoslavia, and since 1991. Republic of Croatia.

 

Higher education

Since centuries Dubrovnik has great tradition in higher eduction.Diocesan Classical Gymnasium "Ruđer Bošković" is a classical gymnasium and one of the city's oldest educational institutions with roots dating back to a seminary founded by the Jesuits in 17th century. It is affiliated with and operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Dubrovnik. It is named after former student and famous european scientist Ruđer Bošković. The Collegium Ragusinum was the first such institution in the city of Dubrovnik. It had a strong tradition in the maritime sciences and is the predecessor of the present-day University of Dubrovnik.

 

Collegium Ragusinum Dubrovnik founded in 1658.

Univeristy of Dubrovnik

 

In the 20th and beginningof 21st century Dubrovnik remained important Croatian cultural, educational, touristic and water sports center.

 


University of Dubrovnik – Rectors house

Campus of the University of Dubrovnik

 


Dubrovnik Summer Festival - since 1950.

Dubrovnik Summer Festival - since 1950.

Dubrovnik is one of the most popular Mediterranean touristic site

Eight waterpolo players from Dubrovnik reach the olympic gold medal on Olympic games
in London 2012 as members of Croatian National waterpolo team

 

HISTORY  OF  DUBROVNIK  MEDICINE

The world first quarantine

The word "quarantine" originates from the Venetian dialect form of the Italian quaranta giorni, meaning 'forty days'. This is due to the 40 day isolation of ships and people before entering the city of Dubrovnik. This was practised as a measure of disease prevention related to the Black Death.

Between 1348 and 1359 the Black Death wiped out an estimated 30% of Europe's population, and a significant percentage of Asia's population. The original document from 1377, which is kept in the Archives of Dubrovnik, states that before entering the city, newcomers had to spend 30 days (a trentine) in a restricted place (originally nearby islands) waiting to see whether the symptoms of Black Death would develop. Later, isolation was prolonged to 40 days and was called quarantine.

So, Dubrovnik „quarantine“ was first to be founded in the world.

 

Old pharmacy

The Franciscan Monastery complex in Dubrovnik includes the third oldest pharmacy in Europe, and oldest  which has been active uninterruptedly since 1317. Judging only from the viewpoint of continuity, this is perhaps the oldest pharmacy on the Old Continent. The parts of pharmacy inventory, mainly from the 17th and 18th centuries, are exhibited at the Franciscan Monastery Museum, the renaissance hall one enters from the cloister.

 

Dubrovnik hospitals

The history of Dubrovnik hospital  first began in the 14th century, when a Poorhouse founded in 1347.  was set up to become a real hospital Domus Christi on March 17th 1540.Since 1420. hospital had its own pharmacy.
Since 13th century Dubrovnik has official public physicians. On November 19th  1615. Council of Dubrovnik Republic titled the first „prothomedicus“ (primarius). First among others was Ivan Antun Sorna.
On October 27th 1783. Council of Dubrovnik Republic made a dicision that „all public physicians and surgeons are obligated to have a meeting in the house of Prothomedicus at the very last day in month, to discuss medical cases from last month. This was a foundation of first official Scientific (professional) Medical Council.
On April 1847. in Domus Christi hospital, the first operation in general (eter) anaethesia was performed, only few months after first one in the world.

 

Domus Christi Dubrovnik Hospital Founded MCCCXLVII

Entrence to hospital

Domus Christi Pharmacy 1420. (Museum of Dubrovnik)

 

Domus Christi was official public hospital during almost 350 years and lasted until 1888  when a new hospital was built in location Šiškovo, out of City walls.

 


Dubrovnik hospital built in 1888. on new location

 


Modern Dubrovnik General Hospital built in 1984. in another new location
on Lapad peninsula and finished in the beginning of 21st century

Present-day  Dubrovnik General Hospital is a modern institution, well equpied with facilities and skilled professionals. It is also a teaching hospital of the University of Dubrovnik.


Famous Dubrovnik physicians

In 13th century first public physicians were Ivan from Treviso  and Vilim from Ascoli.
First surgeon was magister Donatus in 1278.
On November 17th 1312. magister Mitrač was first  professional medical court witness.
In 1403. Antonio from Ancona was first ship physician/surgeon.
Magister Samuel was first ophtalmologic surgeon in 1414.
Amatus Lusitanus, famous medieval european physician, was officially  engaged by Dubrovnik Government from 1555. till 1558.He discovered the circulation of the blood and through dissections of the Azygos vein, he was the first to observe and speculate about the venous valve found there. He was the most important medieval medical publisher.


Amatus Lusitanus (1511-1568.)

 

Gjuro Baglivi (September 8, 1668 in Dubrovnik – June 15, 1707 in Rome) was assistant to Marcello Malpighi first in Bologna and then in Rome (1691-1694). He was appointed physician to Popes Innocent XII and Clement XI, Teacher of Surgery and Anatomy at La Sapienza and Rome University in 1696 and Professor of Theoretical Medicine in 1700. He was elected asFellow of Royal Society in July 1698.


Gjuro Baglivi

 

Dr. Luko Stulli (Dubrovnik 1772- Dubrovnik 1828) -was pioneer in preventive medicine.


Luko Stulli (Stulić)

 

Mr. Antun Drobac (Dubrovnik 1810 – 1882) – was famous pharmacyst heriting great tradition of Dubrovnik pharmacy. Dubrovnik Natural Science Museum was founded on the private natural science collection of the this apothecary and ship-owner .
Dr. Ivan August Kaznačić  (Dubrovnik 1817 – Dubrovnik 1883) – decent Dubrovnik physician, menager of the Hospital Domus Chisti from 1663 till his death 1883. He was also a poet and professor of Croatain language in Dubrovnik Gymnasium.


Ivan August Kaznačić

 

Dr. Roko Mišetić (Zadar 1845 – Dub rovnik 1908) was a student of prof. Theodor Billroth in Vienna and his friend durng many years. He was a first manager of new Dubrovnik Hospital in 1888. and leader of intelectual and polithical life in Dubrovnik at the transition of centuries.


Roko Mišetić

 

Dr. Filip Smolčić (Brač 1872 - Dubrovnik 1954) – manager of the Dubrovnik hospital from 1908 till 1928. He was the founder of the Department of Surgery in 1922.


Filip Smolčić

 

OTHER  INFORMATIONS

CLIMATE

The climate in Dubrovnik is a Mediterranean. In the beginning of May  is pretty warm to swim and bask on the sun. Air temperature ranges from 25 up to 30  C, and see temperature ranges from 20 to 22 C.

 

 

 

HOW  TO REACH  DUBROVNIK

BY ROAD
Arriving to Dubrovnik by car is relatively easy. Highway road from all different part of Europe and Croatia is close to Dubrovnik. Listed below are distances to some nearby cities: 
Zagreb (Croatia) - 526 km
Rijeka (Croatia) -  506 km
Split(Croatia) - 193 km
Vienna (Austria) - 671 km
Belgrade (Serbia) – 407 km
There are also inner and international bus lines.

BY AIR
The easiest way to reach Dubrovnik is by air. Dubrovnik has an modern international airport which is every day directly or indirectly connected with mostly all European metropolis and capitol cities.

 

Dubrovnik international airport
Direct flights map from Dubrovnik (depends on season)

 

You may also find it convenient to use the neighbouring airport:

Split (Croatia) :  Split – Dubrovnik  (around 200 km)
Tivat (Montenegro):  Tivat – Dubrovnik  (around 80 km)

BY  SEA
Dubrovnik is also connected with official car ferry lines with Rijeka and Split as well as Italian Adriatic coast.

 

VISA REQUIREMENTS

For citizens of many but not all countries, a valid passport (or personal identity card for residents of EU) is sufficient to enter Croatia. Participants are advised to check visa requirements at the nearest Croatian  embassy or consulate. Information on visas and addresses of Croatian  embassies is available on the web site of the Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs at www.crovisa.mvep.hr . Participants who need a visa to enter Croatia have to request a Letter of Guarantee which will be prepared by the Organising Committee. The visa cannot be obtained without a Letter of Guarantee which is intended to facilitate participant’s visa arrangements only, and does not imply the provision of any financial or other support.
In case you will apply for a visa at any Croatian embassy please fill out the form completely in order to arrange a Letter of Guarantee and fax it or send it attached in an email to the address  to the technical organiser, Congress service: Gulliver Travel Agency, at least one month before the arrival. 
Letter of guarantee  -  to be announced
The organiser is authorised to demand payment of registration fee before the visa procedure starts. Please note that all costs are to be covered by the participant (verification tax and DHL post costs if needed).

MONEY EXCHANGE
The Croatian legal tender is Croatian kuna. Foreign currency may be exchanged at banks, exchange offices, travel agencies, hotels, airports, harbour  and bus stations. There is a bank in the immediate vicinity of the Congress Hotel. 

 

AUTOMATIC CASH DISPENSERS 
Automatic cash dispensers accepting Visa, Eurocard/Mastercard, American Express credit cards and Maestro Cirrus are situated at all banks in Dubrovnik and also there are  several more in the Valamar Hotels  complex Babin kuk.

CREDIT CARDS
All major credit cards, such as American Express, Visa, Eurocard/Mastercard, Diners, are widely accepted in hotels, restaurants, and shops.

ELECTRICITY
Electricity in croatia  is 220v, 50hz. continental europe (schuko) plugs are used.

DRINKING WATER
Tap water is safe to drink in Dubrovnik and Croatia.

TIME
European summer time, one hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).